C API - General

Overview

This sections describes the "general" tiny-wasm-runtime functions available that don't fit neatly into another category (such as standard C library functions, Draw 2D functions, etc.)

These functions often start with "twr_" and are generally found in this include file:

  • \tiny-wasm-runtime\include\twr-crt.h

bzero

Set a block of memory to zeros. Calls memset(to, 0, count).

#include <string.h>

void bzero (void *to, size_t count);

getc

This is the standard c library function (see the the standard library docs available on the internet).

Of note this function will return extended ASCII (128-255 inclusive). The extend ASCII are always encoded with Windows-1252 encoding.

See twr_getc32 for a list of related functions.

Note that C character input is blocking and you must use twrWasmModuleAsync -- see stdin for details on how to enable blocking character input.

twr_atod

Similar to stdlib atof.

#include "twr-crt.h"

double twr_atod(const char* str);

twr_atou64

Convert a string to a 64 bit unsigned integer, stopping when the first non-valid character is encountered. If len is provided, it will be set to the number of characters read. Radix should be >=2 and <=36 -- for example, 10 is a normal base 10 number and 16 is hexadecimal.

#include "twr-crt.h"

int64_t twr_atou64(const char *str, int* len, int radix);

twr_dtoa

The functions to convert double to text are snprintf, fcvt_s,twr_dtoa, twr_toexponential, and twr_tofixed

#include "twr-crt.h"

void twr_dtoa(char* buffer, int sizeInBytes, double value, int max_precision);

twr_cache_malloc/free

These functions keep allocated memory in a cache for much faster re-access than the standard malloc/free.

#include "twr-crt.h"

void *twr_cache_malloc(twr_size_t size);
void twr_cache_free(void* mem);

twr_code_page_to_utf32_streamed

Return a unicode code point (aka utf-32 value) when passed a byte stream that represents an encoded character using the current local's LC_CTYPE code page. A zero is returned if the byte stream has not yet completed a decode.

For example:

int cp

setlocale(LC_ALL, "");  // set to default locale, which will be UTF-8 encoding with local language/region

// turn a UTF-8 Euro into a UTF-32 value
cp==twr_code_page_to_utf32_streamed(0xE2);
assert (cp==0);
cp=twr_code_page_to_utf32_streamed(0x82);
assert (cp==0);
cp=twr_code_page_to_utf32_streamed(0xAC);
assert (cp==0x000020AC);   // Euro Code points
#include <locale.h>

int twr_code_page_to_utf32_streamed(unsigned char byte) 

twr_conlog

twr_conlog prints debug messages to the browser console from your C code.

#include "twr-crt.h"

void twr_conlog(char* format, ...);

Each call to twr_conlog() will generate a single call to console.log() in JavaScript to ensure that you see debug prints. This call is identical to printf, except that it adds a newline.

The current implementation does not wait for the debug string to output to the console before returning from twr_conlog, when using twrWasmModuleAsync. In this case, it can take a small bit of time for the string to make its way across the Worker Thread boundary. This is normally not a problem and results in faster performance. But if your code crashes soon after the debug print, the print might not appear. If you think this is an issue, you can call twr_sleep(1) after your twr_conlog call. This will force a blocking wait for the print to print.

Prior to 1.0, this function was called twr_dbg_printf, and operated slightly differently.

twr_epoch_timems

Returns the number of milliseconds since the start of the epoch.

#include "twr-wasm.h"

uint64_t twr_epoch_timems();

twr_getc32

Gets a 32 bit unicode code point character from stdin. Unlike the standard C library function getchar, twr_getc32 does not buffer a line (that is, twr_getc32 will return a character before the user presses Enter).

twr_getc32 is implemented as:

int twr_getc32() {
    return io_getc32(twr_get_stdio_con());
}

Note that stdlib getchar and ungetc are not currently implemented.

Note that C character input is blocking and you must use twrWasmModuleAsync -- see stdin for details on how to enable blocking character input.

Also see:

  • io_mbgets - get a multibyte string from a console using the current locale character encoding
  • twr_mbgets - similar to io_mbgets, except always gets a multibyte locale format string from stdin.
  • io_mbgetc - get a multibyte character from an IOConsole (like stdin) using the current locale character encoding
  • getc (sames as fgetc) - get a single byte from a FILE * (IOConsole) -- returning ASCII or extended ASCII (window-1252 encoding)
  • io_getc32 - gets a 32 bit unicode code point from an IOConsole (which currently needs to be stdin)
#include "twr-crt.h"

int twr_getc32();

twr_get_navlang

Returns the BCP 47 language tag as found in javacript navigator.language. If len is not null, it will be filled in with the string length of the language tag.

#include "twr-crt.h"

const char* twr_get_navlang(int *len);

twr_mbgets

Gets a string from stdin. The string will be in the current locale's character encoding -- ASCII for "C", and either UTF-8 or windows-1252 for "". See localization.

#include "twr-crt.h"

char* twr_mbgets(char* buffer);

Internally this function uses the stdio IoConsole -- see the IoConsole section for more advanced input/output.

This function will encode characters as specified by the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale. ASCII is used for "C", and UTF-8 and Windows-1252 are also supported (see localization)

Note that C character input is blocking and you must use twrWasmModuleAsync -- see stdin for details on how to enable blocking character input.

twr_get_current_locale

extern inline locale_t twr_get_current_locale(void);

twr_get_current_locale will return the locale that has been set by setlocale. It can be used to pass to a function that takes a locale_t.

twr_localize_numeric_string

Functions like twr_dtoa do not localize the decimal point. To get a localized decimal point, you can use printf, or alternately twr_localize_numeric_string to post process a string. For example:

char b[10];
strcpy(b, "1.23");
twr_localize_numeric_string(b, twr_get_current_locale());
// if locale was set to french, then b is now 1,23
#include <locale.h>

void twr_localize_numeric_string(char* str, locale_t locale);

twr_mbslen_l

Returns the number of characters in a string using the character encoding of the passed locale (ASCII for "C", UTF-8, or windows-1252 for ""). You can use twr_get_current_locale to find the current locale.

#include <string.h>

size_t twr_mbslen_l(const char *str, locale_t locale);

twr_sleep

twr_sleep is a traditional blocking sleep function. This function is blocking, and you must use twrWasmModuleAsync.

#include "twr-wasm.h"

void twr_sleep(int ms);

twr_tofixed

This function is identical to its JavaScript version.

#include "twr-wasm.h"

void twr_tofixed(char* buffer, int buffer_size, double value, int dec_digits);

The functions to convert double to text are snprintf, fcvt_s,twr_dtoa, twr_toexponential, and twr_tofixed

twr_toexponential

This function is identical to its JavaScript version.

#include "twr-wasm.h"

void twr_toexponential(char* buffer, int buffer_size, double value, int dec_digits);

The functions to convert double to text are snprintf, fcvt_s,twr_dtoa, twr_toexponential, and twr_tofixed

twr_strhorizflip

Mirror image the passed in string.

#include "twr-crt.h"

void twr_strhorizflip(char * buffer, int n);

twr_utf8_char_len

Returns the number of bytes in a UTF-8 character (passed as a string pointer). UTF-8 characters can be 1 to 4 bytes in length.

#include <string.h>

int twr_utf8_char_len(const char *str);

twr_utf32_to_code_page

Takes a utf32 value (aka unicode code point value), and fills in the passed character array buffer with the character encoding of the utf32 value, using the current locale's LC_CTYPE code page.

For example:

char strbuf[6];             // max size of utf-8 is 4+terminating zero.  Max size of ASCII or windows 1252 is 1 + terminating zero
setlocale(LC_ALL, "");  // set to default locale, which will be UTF-8 encoding with local language/region
twr_utf32_to_code_page(strbuf, 0x000020AC);  // encode a Euro code point 
printf("%s", strbuf); 
assert ( strcmp(strbuf,"\xE2\x82\xAC")==0 );  // utf-8 encoding of euro
assert ( strcmp(strbuf,"€")==0 );           // clang string literals default to utf-8 encoding
include <locale.h>

void twr_utf32_to_code_page(char* out, int utf32)

twr_vprintf

Performs a printf by calling the callback with cbdata for each character.

#include "twr-crt.h"

void twr_vprintf(twr_cbprintf_callback out, void* cbdata, const char *format, va_list* args);

floating math helpers


int twr_isnan(double v);
int twr_isinf(double v);
double twr_nanval();
double twr_infval();